Future of Solar Harvesting in Nepal - Smart Solar Nepal

Nepal Future in Solar Harvesting

Nepal has faced a deficiency between the supply and demand of electrical energy for the past several years. Though the energy supplied by the Nepal Electricity Authority is more than 80% from the government and private hydropower sector. The deficit energy is purchased from India to meet the energy demand. Despite this, only 78% of the population has the access to grid-connected energy and 82% of the population used solid fuel as the source for cooking. So, the demand for energy is higher. The required demands for energy could be fulfilled if the proper utilization of the available renewable energy is properly planned and implemented. Nepal has the greater potential in renewable energy source in the form of solar energy. From the survey, it was found that the number of sunny days in Nepal is 300 days annually, which is the best platform for solar energy production.

The above graph represents the energy consumption 2020in Nepal which was about 6529GWh. This consumption data was increased from 6381.21GWh from the year 2019. From the above graph,it is visible as the year passed theelectricity demand was higher. This is due to the adaptation of clean energy in cooking, heating, and so on as well as increased population and advancement in technology. Till today’s period, the country is not self-depended in the energy sector to meet the consumer demand of the country. The shortage of energy is purchased from India to meet its demand. According to the energy demand projected 2030 BS which was published by the Energy Department of the Government of Nepal in 2068 BS, the increased in energy demand from the various sector is rapidly increasing due to modernization and growth of population. By 2030 BS, the increase in the household will reached from 5.4 million to 7.7 million which indicates the large consumption of energy usage over time. It means, the energy consumption growth rate will increased from the various sector will be from4% to 19%. And the final energy demand will be around 3.817 gigawatt per years which is about 60% of the total system capacity.

From the chart of available energy, energy demand and forecasted data for the energy, it is seen that the energy demand for the coming year will be higher. This data clears the huge scope of renewable energyin the coming year as well. But due to the limitation and large investment along with geographical difficulties of Nepal it is very much difficult in the energy production from hydropower, wind, geothermal and other forms of energy. As the shortage of electrical energy increases more electrical energy need to be import from India which will result in large capital outflow from the national revenue. So the alternative is to prevent more capital outflow and in order to become self-dependent the country must look for alternative renewable resources for energy production. To meet the higher demand in all part of Nepal, solar harvesting will be the best possible option without hampering the natural resources.Peopleshas positive concept for the adaptation of PV solar for generating electrical energy from sun. And also, the Nepal government along with different INGO & NGOs is supporting better policies for the promotion and production of solar energy. According to the NEA annual report 2019, two projects related to solar are already connected in the NEA grid with a capacity of 1.68MW.

Solar photovoltaic system demand is increasing day by day as more people, INGO & NGOs are concerned with the preservation of natural resources and promoting renewable resources. And Nepal has a higher potential for solar energy. Also, solar energy production has a low cost as well as flexibility due to the decline in the cost of solarpannel due to advancement and bulk production of the system. Normally, Nepal holds the capacity to produced 50000 terawatt-hours per year from solar energy which is far larger than Nepal’s hydropower production and 7000 times larger than Nepal current consumption of energy.  It is cheaper than other sources of energy as hydro, nuclear, and fossil fuel. Solar PV is rated as the cheapest source of electricity in history in low-cost financing with a high-quality resource by the International Energy Agency. Other forms of energy increased climate change so current generation is seeking to reduce climate change andfor this, the solar PV is the best solution. Being a developing country Nepal can replace the fossils fuel era and adoptes the solar energy with zero-emission.

Solar energy is gaining more popularity due to the rapid fall in the cost associated with the system over recent years. For the production of solar energy, Nepal is good enough because with the investment of just NRs 4850 upto1MWh energy cab be produced. Moreover its cost will also decrease as the solar industry gets mature in Nepal. Hence, the solar energy can be considers the most reliable energy source in Nepal. Till the date, most of the individual household uses the small scale solar energy for computing, lighting, grain grinding, water pumping,telecommunication and so on. This energy can be adopted for the lower-income family as well as higher-income family to make their living easier. In the future, the Nepalese people can meet the higher living standard as well as can sell the surplus energy to the Nepal Electricity Authority and earnEXTRAmoney as well. It is predicted that when Nepal reach the developing countries, each individual of the country will consume about 15MWh per year of the total electricity. This is 70 times higher than today’s consumption.

Just like the developed country energy is used to heat and light the homes, power the electrical vehicle, cook food and also the operation of industries.

Most part of Nepal is feasible for the production of solar energy. Normally, a 40- 50 square meter area of the solar panel is required to cover the energy consumption per person to meet the normal power capacity which is about 10KW. Most of the area from the rooftop can be utilize, along with this some can float in the pond or lake or some can be on the ground.

Harvesting solar energy with proper management reduces the country energy crisis problem. We can use solar energy during the day time for the operation of industries and during night time we can run the hydro energy because pumped hydro energy storage is far cheaper than the other form of stored energy such as batteries. By balancing solar energy and hydro energy Nepal can get more benefit in the energy sector. As per the Global Pumped Hydro Atlas, Nepal has more good storage sites at about 2800 which is fifty times more than the needed even after Nepal catch up with the developed countries. Also, theses site doesn’t require to be dammed which reduce the high social and environmental cost associated with damping. Solar energy is cheaper and abundant in Nepal. If the government policies and proper management is adopted in the promotion and utilization of solar energy Nepal can take great advantagesof the energy sector. It reduced the energy cost as well as make the country self-depended in the energy sector. Nepal can enjoy the same energy consumption as the developed countries without degradation ofany natural resources such as burning fossil fuel or damping any river.

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